Sample Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ's) for CA Foundation - Paper 2 - Business Laws and Business Correspondence and Reporting - PART 2 - BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE AND REPORTING - Chapter 1: COMPREHENSION PASSAGES - For Practice relevant for Dec 22 and May/June 23 Examinations

Q:1  Studies by the Bengaluru-based Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandhana Samsthana (S-VYASA) analysed the changes that take place in the body during Om meditation. The study found “small but statistically significant” reduction in hear-rate during Om meditation. This, according to the researchers, suggests a deep psycho physiological relaxation, which in turn increases alertness. The study also showed decrease in blood flow in the skin, which, too, is indicative of improved alertness.

Some studies based on the analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings have shown that mindfulness meditation improves relaxation. One study that looked at performance in cancellation tasks (a psychometric test of visual perception and vigilance) in 70 healthy subjects- some of them meditated before the task-found that performance in such tasks improves after meditation. Researchers have demonstrated that meditation leads to positive changes in midbrain-associated with vision, hearing, motor control sleep and alertness-whether one choose to meditate on a single syllable or a series of thoughts, Transcendental meditation, which uses a sound or mantra, improves perception of hearing. In the various studies done by-S-VYASA on sleep and meditation, it is said meditation in many ways is similar to a deep state of sleep. Bodily sensation is voluntarily reduced in both these conditions. However, unlike in sleep, the level of awareness is significantly higher in meditation.

Q:1.1 Meditation benefits the 

  1. Body
  2. Mind
  3. Spirit
  4. All of the above

Answer: 4

Q:1.2 Transcendental Meditation uses

  1. Sleep mode
  2. Sound or mantra
  3. Music
  4. Psycho-physiological phenomena

Answer: 2

Q:1.3 Select the most suitable title for the passage

  1. Mindful Meditation
  2. Body of Meditation
  3. The Science of Meditation
  4. Best of Meditation

Answer: 3

Q:1.4 Select the option which is closest in meaning to ‘vigilance’ in the context

  1. Keeping track of
  2. Helpfulness
  3. Perception
  4. Attentiveness

Answer: 4

Q:2 The human brain has been examined for ages in an attempt to understand its structure and functioning.. Scientists, over time, have indicated that the slow decline of brain as you age is inevitable. It is true that after the age of forty the brain begins to lose volume. However, it has recently been discovered that if we continue to keep it active by using it to learn multifarious new and challenging skills and activities, it will improve instead of declining. Research shows that we can not only change the way we think and feel, but that those thoughts and feelings can change the very physical workings of the brain-it is called neuroplasticity. And that means the brain you own is the one you build, and you are building it every day with what you do. Exercise and nutrition are key, and genetics plays a role, of course.

A US study recently published findings on online brain training games, concluding that the games-which challenge memory and reasoning skills-could cut the risk of dementia by a third. Experts described these results as “spectacular”.

But there are other changes you can make that have a proven impact on brain function. You need to challenges you brain so find something really difficult and new that you like to do-and do it. Numerous studies prove that the more mentally active you stay, the longer you stay mentally active, building new networks among your brain cells. Build a boat, learn a language, make art, make music-and don’t retire from life when you stop working. Studies show that the educated brain stays sharp longer, so keep learning-or even better, teach a class.

The healing benefits of sleep are obvious. Now studies show that it enhances memory if you sleep within a few hours of learning something new-and that sleep deprivation disrupts memory formation. These studies, both from the US, found that even a very short sleep after learning strengthens memory. It appears that our unconscious (or autonomic) nervous system stays at work while we sleep, seemingly consolidating all that new learning.

And don’t forget naps. Even very short ones can enhance memory and improve learning. Sara Mednick, a professor of psychology at the University of California, Riverside, author of Take a Nap! Change Your Life and co-author of one of the sleep studies, has said that napping between 15 and 90 minutes of great for the brain and can be as good as a whole night’s sleep.

Dozens of studies show meditation reduces stress. And newer studies show meditation physically changes the brain. Ongoing studies from Richie Davidson at the Center for Healthy Minds at the University of WisconsinMadison, USA, have shown meditation increase grey matter in parts of the brain associated with flexibility, memory and learning, and also executive function-the ability to solve problems and make choices. While the most dramatic changes were seen in brains that had been meditating for decades, measurable brain changes were seen after only a few months.

Q:2.1 Neuroplasticity refers to

  1. Ability of brain to form and reorganize connections to remain active and young
  2. Flexibility of the brain
  3. Challenging and stretching the brain
  4. Change thoughts and feelings

Answer: 1

Q:2.2 The brain remains active and agile if

  1. Eat nutritious food
  2. Meditate
  3. Build new networks in the brain by learning new things
  4. All of the above

Answer: 4

Q:2.3 The best way to prevent dementia is

  1. Exercise everyday
  2. Control your thoughts and feelings
  3. Meet many people frequently
  4. Enhance memory, reasoning skills and continue learning all your life.

Answer: 4

Q:2.4 Sleeping is

  1. Detrimental for physical and mental health
  2. Makes you lethargic
  3. Beneficial for all brain functions
  4. Disrupts memory formation

Answer: 3

Q:3 ‘ChanakyaNeeti’ is synonymous with efficient statecraft around the world, and Chanakya is India’s face of political statecraft and the rich political understanding of its ancient heritage. No political efficiency is devoid of understanding Chanakya and his ways of statecraft. In fact, he showed the world what political theory is in practice. Ancient Indian history is incomplete without a reference to his ways of statecraft and politics.

Chanakya amazes any scholar with his multifaceted character, but it had a distinct focused aim. He was more about philosophy and thoughts put into action. He does not bore you with his philosophical theory but engages you to think, act and achieve what you dream of. He overthrew a mighty empire and put in the throne a humble man like Chandragupta Maurya. He identified the potential ruler from a group of children, thus gave the world a great sovereign who united the Indian subcontinent into a political and administrative unit.

For sure, Chanakya’s mental capabilities were superb. The modern global diplomacy revolves around his principal of ‘saam, daam, dand, bhed’ (persuade, purchase/ set a price upon, punish, exploit the weakness). His ‘Arthashastra’ elevates the state to a position where service to it entails imperatives unknown to morality Chanakya would be identified as a professor of political science and economics at Taxila. He was an economic, political and royal adviser and a think tank, and can be credited to have given India its first complex united empire.

Q:3.1 ‘Chanakya Neeti’ is

  1. An individual
  2. A political treatise
  3. A philosophy
  4. A complex way of thinking

Answer: 2

Q:3.2 Chanakya amazes scholars because of

  1. His character
  2. His focused aim
  3. Boring political philosophy
  4. Ability to get people to think, act and achieve their dreams

Answer: 4

Q:3.3 In ‘Arthashastra’ Chanakya places the interests of the state

  1. Below moral responsibility
  2. At par with moral responsibility
  3. Above any moral responsibility
  4. The state has nothing to do with moral responsibility

Answer: 3

Q:3.4 The modern day global diplomacy follows the principle of

  1. Reward, request, entreaty and punishment
  2. Request, cajole, threaten and persuade
  3. Purchase, punish, request and accept
  4. Persuasion, exploitation, punishment and purchase

Answer: 4



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